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Reintroduction is the deliberate release of species into the wild, from captivity or relocated from other areas where the species survives. It usually involves species that are endangered or extinct in the wild (EW). Because reintroduction may involve returning native species to localities where they had been extirpated, some prefer the term "re-establishment".


ContentsEdit

[hide]*1 Survival skills

Survival skillsEdit

It may be very hard to reintroduce EW species into the wild, even if their natural habitats were restored. Survival techniques, which are normally passed from parents to offspring during parenting, are lost. The genetics of the species is saved, but the natural memetics of the species is not.

Beginning in the 1980s, biologists have learned that many mammals and birds need to learn a lot to survive in the wild. Thus, reintroduction programmes have to be planned carefully, ensuring that the animals have the necessary survival skills. Biologists must also study the animals after the reintroduction to learn whether the animals are surviving and breeding, what effects the reintroduction has on the ecosystem, and how to improve the process.

Still, a vast number of animals may need to be reintroduced into the wild to be sure that enough of them learn how to survive. For instance, in reintroducing Houbara Bustards into the wild in the United Arab Emirates, more than 5,000 birds per year are used.


IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist GroupEdit

The IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group (RSG)[2] is one of the over 100 Specialist groups of the Species Survival Commission (SSC), which is one of the six IUCN Commissions, with its headquarters in Gland, Switzerland. The RSG is one of the few disciplinary Specialist Groups (e.g. Veterinary, Conservation Breeding) as opposed to the majority which are taxon based (e.g. Crocodile, Cat, Orchid).

The role of the RSG is to promote the re-establishment of viable populations in the wild of animals and plants. The need for this role was felt due to the increased demand from re-introduction practitioners, the global conservation community and increase in re-introduction projects worldwide.

Increasing numbers of animal and plant species are becoming rare, or even extinct in the wild. In an attempt to re-establish populations, species can – in some instances – be re-introduced into an area, either through translocation from existing wild populations, or by re-introducing captive-bred animals or artificially propagated plants.

United KingdomEdit

Ongoing or successful programsEdit

  • Moose to Scotland (ongoing)
  • Northern Goshawk – the existing UK population is believed to be derived from a mixture of escaped falconers' birds and deliberate introductions – (successful)
  • Large Blue butterfly in the West and The South West – (successful and ongoing)
  • Red Kite in the Chiltern Hills, Black Isle, Northamptonshire, Dumfries and Galloway, Yorkshire, Perth and Kinross and Gateshead – (successful)
  • Osprey to Rutland Water – (successful)
  • White-tailed Eagle to the Hebrides – (successful)
  • White-tailed Eagle to the east coast of Scotland – (ongoing)
  • Glanville Fritillary butterfly to Somerset – (successful)
  • Heath Fritillary butterfly to Essex – (successful)
  • Silver-washed Fritillary to Essex - (ongoing, locally successful)
  • Great Bustard to Salisbury Plain – (ongoing)
  • Black Grouse to Derbyshire – (ongoing)
  • Corncrake to Cambridgeshire – (ongoing)
  • Wild Boar to several places in Britain – (accidental), (successful)
  • Red Squirrel to Anglesey – (successful and ongoing)[3]
  • Common Crane to Somerset (ongoing)
  • European Beaver to Scotland (ongoing)

Planned or proposed programsEdit

  • Wolf in Scotland (proposed)
  • Brown Bear in Scotland (proposed)
  • White-tailed Eagle to England and Wales (planned - on hold whilst suitable site is founed)
  • Eurasian Lynx in England and Scotland (proposed)
  • European Beaver in England and Wales (if the Scottish project is successful).
  • Golden Eagle in England

Rejected proposalsEdit

  • The Wild Beasts Trust
  • European Beaver in Scotland (2005)


Other countriesEdit

Planned or proposed programsEdit

  • Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project of Asiatic Lion to Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary from their only home presently in the world at Gir Forest National Park. Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary is the chosen site for re-introducing and establishing the world's second completely separate population of the wild free ranging Asiatic Lions in the state of Madhya Pradesh

Ongoing or successful programsEdit

  • Alpine Ibex in the French, Italian and Swiss Alps (successful)
  • Black-footed Ferret in the Canada, USA and Mexico
  • Bornean Orangutan in East Kalimantan, Indonesia
  • Brush-tailed Betton in Australia (ongoing)
  • California Condor in California (USA) and Mexico (ongoing)
  • Eurasian Brown Bear in the Alps (ongoing)
  • European Beaver in several places in Europe (successful)
  • European Otter in the Netherlands (ongoing)
  • European Lynx in Switzerland (successful), and other parts of Europe (ongoing)
  • European Black Vulture in the Massif Central in France
  • Griffon Vulture in the Massif Central, France (successful), Central Apennines, Italy, and Northern and Southern Israel (ongoing)
  • Lammergeier in the Alps (successful)
  • Lesser Kestrel in Spain
  • Lesser White-fronted Goose in Sweden and Germany (ongoing)
  • Musk ox in Alaska (USA) (successful)
  • Northern Bald Ibis in Austria and Italy (ongoing)
  • Nubian Ibex in Israel (successful)
  • Père David's Deer in China (ongoing)
  • Peregrine Falcon in Germany, Poland, Sweden and Norway
  • Persian Fallow Deer in Israel (ongoing)
  • Przewalski's Horse in Mongolia (ongoing)
  • Puerto Rican Parrot in Arecibo (ongoing)
  • Red Kite in Ireland
  • White-tailed Eagle in Ireland (ongoing)
  • Golden Eagle in Ireland (ongoing)
  • Wisent in Poland, Belarus (successful) and other parts of Europe (ongoing)
  • Wolf in Wyoming (USA) (successful)
  • Arabian Oryx in the Sultanate of Oman (successful)
  • Goitered Gazelle in Protected Areas of Vashlovani in Georgia (country)(ongoing