FANDOM


270px-Japanse wijnbes rijpe vruchten-1-
&nbsp


Rubus phoenicolasius (Japanese Wineberry, Wineberry, or Wine Raspberry) is a species of raspberry (Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus) native to northern China, Japan, and Korea.


CharacteristicsEdit

The species is a perennial plant which bears biennial stems ("canes") from the perennial root system. In its first year, a new stem grows vigorously to its full height of 1-3 m, unbranched, and bearing large pinnate leaves with three or five leaflets; normally it does not produce any flowers. In its second year, the stem does not grow taller, but produces several side shoots, which bear smaller leaves always with three leaflets; the leaves are white underneath.

The flowers are produced in late spring on short, very bristly racemes on the tips of these side shoots, each flower 6–10 mm diameter with five purplish red to pink petals and a bristly calyx. The fruit is orange or red, about 1 cm diameter, edible, produced in summer or early autumn; in botanical terminology, it is not a berry at all, but an aggregate fruit of numerous drupelets around a central core. Ripening occurs from early summer. The canes have fine, red thorns, which appear much like red hair.

In addition to seed propagation, new plants are formed from the tips of existing canes touching the ground. They enjoy moist soil and grow near and within wooded areas.

As a fruit develops, it is surrounded by a protective calyx covered in hairs that exude tiny drops of sticky fluid. A 2009 study by Sina Pohl at the University of Vienna showed that plants do not get nutrients from insects caught in the sap: the sticky mucilage contains no digestive enzymes; surrounding tissues cannot absorb nutrients; and there are no protein-storage tissues. Also, unlike carnivorous plants, wineberry grows in nurient-rich soil, so it has no need for insect nutrients. The species was introduced to Europe and North America as an ornamental plant and for its potential in breeding hybrid raspberries. It has subsequently escaped from cultivation and become naturalised and sometimes invasive in parts of Europe and eastern North America.

They are also called Wine raspberries. "Wineberry" is also the common name of a tree endemic to New Zealand.